Understanding the interrelationships among attitudes and orientations is important for a full understanding of voting behavior. Ekeh has argued that ethnicity has flourished because the Nigerian elite who inherited the colonial state have conceptualized development as transferring resources from the civil public to the primordial pubic it is against this background that this writer would x-ray in a laconic manner the interplay of ethnicity in the body politics of Nigeria in pre-independence era and from independence till date.
I calculated these differences by subtracting the percentage protesting for individuals who said they do not belong to an ethnic minority group from the percentage protesting for individuals who belong to an ethnic minority group.
Finally, I discuss how and why ethnicity matters in shaping party preferences among minority members. Flanigan and Nancy H. One aspect of socialization experiences among first-generation immigrants is the level of democracy in their country of origin. Thus, it is recommended that appropriate authorities would provide a level playing ground for people of different age and sex to exercise their civic duties, also, mass mobilization aimed at voters being assertive in the election of their leaders should be embarked upon by both government and non- governmental organizations in order to effect positive attitudinal change in the electorates.
Resource-Based Models of Political Participation Among Minorities While support for ethnic group interests varies as a consequence of perceptions of the factors discussed above, another central question is to what extent ethnicity is related to various forms of political behavior. A need —assessment for social services program Self-esteem was also found to have significant planning.
With the demise of Alhaji Umar Musa Yar'adua some people in the North felt power should not shift to the south and they started kicking against the presidency of Dr. Studies focusing on individual support for group interests among ethnic minority members find that higher socioeconomic status generally leads to a reduced emphasis on ethnicity in forming individual political opinions.
Click to view larger Figure 1: People rely on ethnicity in making political decisions to enhance their cognitive efficiency.
This research suggests that it is not the presence of minority candidates but rather the size of minority populations in a district that is responsible for both—higher numbers of minority candidates and higher levels of minority voting turnout. Electoral Rules, Districting, and Minority Political Participation The debates on the consequences of electoral systems for ethnic minorities have focused in large part on minority opportunities to elect their preferred candidates.
A more advanced discussion can be found in: However, Azeez views ethnicity as a sense of people hood that has its foundation in the combined remembrance of past experience and common aspiration. However, it was in the 2nd republic that regionalism was played down a bit.
This is because while the former encourages ethnic minority members to vote for a pro-minority party, the latter appears to have the opposite effect: Minority Empowerment and Political Participation Additional explanations of political participation among ethnic minorities focus on political context, most notably minority political empowerment.
Ethnicity, in a Presidential Campaign. These issues may be particularly important with respect to ethnic minorities that are more likely to feel discriminated against, become alienated from electoral politics, and motivated to engage in political violence. Loss aversion[ edit ] The loss aversion theory  by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman is often associated with voting behavior as people are more likely to use their vote to avoid the effect of an unfavorable policy rather than supporting a favorable policy.
Cross-national analyses reveal that second-generation advantage among immigrants manifests itself in the levels of less institutionalized forms of political action Just et al. It should be pointed out that political parties formation had a different dimension in the third republic which was midwived by President Ibrahim Babangida government.
Multiple regression whether these same factors will influence the analysis and 2X2 Analysis of Variance were used voting behaviour of electorates in Nigeria, given to analyze the data collected.
Evaluations of candidate qualities and government performance are distinctly short-term forces, capable of substantial shifts from one election to the next. Multiple regression analysis table showing the independent and joint influence of age, ethnicity, social class, self-esteem and media on voting behaviour.
For instance, in the United Kingdom the effects of ethnicity in national elections are larger in magnitude than any of the other measures of social cleavages, such as class or religion Heath et al. Moreover, given that minority legislators are more committed to advancing their group interests, descriptive representation of ethnic minorities provides better opportunities for adopting policies that are favorable to these groups.
Moreover, a change from a SMD to a mixed member proportional electoral system in New Zealand in the s resulted in greater increase in political efficacy among ethnic minority members than in the rest of the electorate Banducci et al. In pre-independence era, party politics in Nigeria was based on ethnic factor thus one can say that it was during this period in question that the seed of ethnic politics was sown, germinated in the first republic and the products started spreading during the 3rd and 4th republics.
Nnoli defined ethnicity as a "social phenomenon associated with interactions among members of different ethnic groups. One type of organizations that has played a particularly important role in mobilizing political activism among African Americans in the U. Cross-national studies confirm that members of ethnic minorities generally participate in politics less than majority populations, as we saw in Figure 1 e.
Moreover, this relationship is particularly strong among those newcomers who are dissatisfied with the political system. The Richard Constitution had divided Nigeria into three regions for administrative convenience which are directly associated with the three major ethnic groups - Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo.
Issue orientations fall in between. The most significant long-term change occurs when there is a critical realignment of the party system, which refers to a rapid, fundamental, and durable alteration in the pattern of party loyalties held by the electorate Burnham; SundquistMoreover, where group norms are clearly defined and intensely felt—as is the case for African Americans in their support for the Democratic Party—the reputational costs of pursuing self-interest at the expense of the group goals becomes particularly high.
Participation in voluntary associations can enhance political participation of their members by developing civic skills that facilitate political activity as well as by directly mobilizing individuals. However, the relationship between descriptive representation and voting turnout among minority members has received less empirical support.
Taken together, these studies indicate that there is strength in numbers for ethnic minorities when it comes to their political participation. Voting behavior is defined as a set of personal electoral activities, including participation in electoral campaigns, turnout at the polls, and choosing for whom to vote (Bratton, ).
determinants of voting behaviour, not much work has been done in determining how age, gender and personal ideology determine the voting behaviour of electorates in the elections in Oyo State, Nigeria, hence this study.
This study examines the influence of ethnicity and religion on the voting patterns of the Nigerian electorate. The paper employed the content analysis approach being the of the federal government to resolve the issues regarding ethnicity and religion.
Although Nigeria is a secular state, the country shares the attributes of Christianity and.
in Nigeria, various approaches were adopted to study ethnicity in Nigeria and findings showed that ethnicity is the major factor militating against the evolution of the truly modern and democratic nation where the interest, wellbeing and the rights of people are protected.
In the pre-colonial era and since the independence of Nigeria, ethnicity played and still playing manifest and latent roles in the body politics of Nigeria. As Otite () observed and quite rightly too, the ethnic virus has been one of the most important causes of social crisis and political.
Ethnicity and the Voting Pattern in Nigeria's General Elections: The Case of Lagos State. By Surajudeen Oladosu Mudasiru, PhD Department of Political Science Faculty of Social Sciences Lagos State University, Ojo PMB LASU Post Office, Ojo Lagos, Nigeria.Ethnicity and voting behavior in nigeria